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370여 명의 루터란 신학자 리스트전 세계 신학자의 90 %는 루터란이다?
  • 김동규 목사
  • 승인 2019.11.01 06:55
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김동규 목사 - The University of Sydney. Ph.D. (종교학) 저서 - 한국 기독교와 문화 : 한국 교회의 하느님. 하나님 이해 (신성출판사, 2014)

1. 필자는 현재 장로교단 소속 목사이지만, 과거에 루터 신학을 했던 적이 있다. 그래서 가끔 루터 신학에 대해 물어보는 사람이 있다. 그런데 그 방대하고 다양한 분야의 영역을 한 마디로 대답하기란 쉽지 않다. 어떤 교단의 신학과 색깔을 알려면 그 교단의 신학자를 알면 쉽게 이해가 될 때가 있다.

2. 언젠가 독일계 지도 교수님께서 “전 세계 신학자의 90%는 루터란 이다”라고 말한 적이 있다.

3. 그 교수의 말이 얼마나 신빙성 있는 자료를 인용했는지 여쭤 보지는 않았지만, 아래 루터란 신학자들을 보면 아주 틀린 말은 아님을 짐작할 수 있다.

4. 루터 신학에 대해 궁금하신 분들을 위해, 지난 500년 동안의 개신교 역사에서 루터 신학의 배경을 이루고 있는 370여 명의 루터란 신학자를 소개함으로 세계 루터 교회와 루터 신학의 배경을 소개하는 게 오히려 도움이 될듯싶다.

 

●● 루터교 출신 신학자들 ●●

 

♥ 루돌프 불트만 (Rudolf Bultmann)

♥ 앨버트 슈바이처 (Albert Schweitzer)

♥ 디트리히 본훼퍼 (Dietrich Bonhoeffer)

♥ 폴 요하네스 틸리히 (Paul Johannes Tillich)

♥ 게르하르트 폰 라트 (Gerhard von Rad)

♥ 오스카 쿨만 (Oscar Cullmann)

♥ 루돌프 옷토 (Rudolf Otto)

♥ 마르틴 켈러 (Martin Kähler)

♥ 요아힘 예레미아스 (Joachim Jeremias)

♥ 데오도시우스 하르낙 (Theodosius Harnack) - 아돌프 폰 하르낙의 부친

♥ 에른스트 케제만 (Ernst Käsemann)

♥ 모빙겔 (Sigmund Mowinckel)

♥ 베르하르트 둠 (Bernhard Duhm)

♥ 알브레흐트 알트 (Albrecht Alt)

♥ 말틴 노트 (Martin Noth)

♥ 크리스토프 블룸하르트 (Christoph Friedrich Blumhardt)

♥ 말틴 루터 (Martin Luther)

♥ 필리프 멜란히톤 (Philipp Melanchthon)

♥ 볼프하르트 판넬베르크 (Wolfhart Pannenberg)

 

♥ 이외 아래 신학자들을 신학을 공부한 사람들에게 익숙한 신학자들이 아주 많다. 루터 교회와 루터 신학에 대한 이해에 도움이 되길 바라며….

Abraham Calovius(German Lutheran theologian)
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Adolf Bernhard Christoph Hilgenfeld(German Lutheran theologian)
Adolf Köberle(German Lutheran theologian)
Adolf Paul Johannes Althaus(German Lutheran theologian)
Aegidius Hunnius(German Lutheran theologian)
Albert Eichhorn(German Lutheran theologian)
Albrecht Alt(German Lutheran theologian)
Alexander von Oettingen(German Lutheran theologian)
Alv Kragerud(Norwegian theologian)
Ambrosius Moibanus(German Lutheran theologian)
Anders Nygren(Swedish Lutheran theologian)
Andreas Gottlob Rudelbach(Danish Theologian)
Andreas Musculus(German Lutheran theologian)
Andreas Osiander(German Lutheran theologian)
Andreas Poach(German Lutheran theologian)
Antje Jackelén(Swedish Lutheran theologian)
Anton Christian Bang(Norwegian theologian)
Anton Fridrichsen(Norwegian theologian)
Anton Fridrichsen(Swedish Lutheran theologian)
Arne Palmqvist(Swedish Lutheran theologian)
August Hahn(German Lutheran theologian)
August Hermann Francke(German Lutheran theologian)
August Klostermann(German Lutheran theologian)
August Weenaas(American Luthera)
Johannes Aagaard (Danish Theologian)
Bärbel Wartenberg-Potter
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Berge Furre(Norwegian theologian)
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Bernhard Pauss (Norwegian theologian)
Bernt Oftestad (Norwegian theologian)
Bertil Gärtner (Swedish Lutheran theologian)
Birger Gerhardsson (Swedish Lutheran theologian)
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Carl Braaten (American Lutheran)
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Caspar Abel(German Lutheran theologian)
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Caspar Bartholin the Elder (Danish Theologian)
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Christa Blanke (German Lutheran theologian)
Christoph Blumhardt (German Lutheran theologian)
Christoph Ernst Luthardt (German Lutheran theologian)
Claus Harms (German Lutheran theologian)
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Conrad Porta (German Lutheran theologian)
D. W. Jesudoss
Daniel Cramer (German Lutheran theologian)
Daniel Gotthilf Moldenhawer (Danish Theologian)
Daniel Lorenz Salthenius (Swedish Lutheran theologian)
David Caspari (German Lutheran theologian)
David Christiani (German Lutheran theologian)
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Edvard Magnus Rodhe(Swedish Lutheran theologian)
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Edward Frederick Moldenke(American Lutheran)
Edward Frederick Moldenke(German Lutheran theologian)
Eero Huovinen(Finish Lutheran theologian)
Einar Amdahl(Norwegian theologian)
Einar Billing(Swedish Lutheran theologian)
Elisabeth Gerle(Swedish Lutheran theologian)
Emanuel Hirsch(German Lutheran theologian)
Emanuel Swedenborg(Swedish Lutheran theologian)
Emil Fuchs (theologian) (German Lutheran theologian)
Erasmus Alberus(German Lutheran theologian)
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Eric W. Gritsch(American Lutheran)
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Ernst Friedrich von Ockel(German Lutheran theologian)
Ernst Käsemann(German Lutheran theologian)
Ernst Oddvar Baasland(Norwegian theologian)
Ernst von Dobschütz(German Lutheran theologian)
Ernst Wilhelm Hengstenberg(German Lutheran theologian)
Eugène Ménégoz (French Lutheran theologian)
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Franz Anton Knittel(German Lutheran theologian)
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Friedrich von Bodelschwingh, Senior(German Lutheran theologian)
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Dietrich Bonhoeffer‎ (German Lutheran theologian)
Gustaf Aulén(Swedish Lutheran theologian)
Gustaf Dalman(German Lutheran theologian)
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Halvor Moxnes(Norwegian theologian)
Hans Adolph Brorson(Danish Theologian)
Hans Asmussen(German Lutheran theologian)
Hans Ehrenberg(German Lutheran theologian)
Hans Iwand(German Lutheran theologian)
Hans Lassen Martensen(Danish Theologian)
Hans Ording(Norwegian theologian)
Harold H. Buls
Heike Friis(Danish Theologian)
Heinrich Bassermann(German Lutheran theologian)
Heinrich Ernst Ferdinand Guericke(German Lutheran theologian)
Heinrich Hansen(German Lutheran theologian)
Heinrich Müller (theologian) (German Lutheran theologian)
Heinrich Paulus(German Lutheran theologian)
Heinrich Philipp Konrad Henke(German Lutheran theologian)
Helge Hognestad(Norwegian theologian)
Helmut Echternach(German Lutheran theologian)
Helmut Gollwitzer(German Lutheran theologian)
Henric Schartau(Swedish Lutheran theologian)
Henrik Nicolai Clausen(Danish Theologian)
Hermann Cremer(German Lutheran theologian)
Hermann Guthe(German Lutheran theologian)
Hugo Hickmann(German Lutheran theologian)
Ian A. McFarland
Inge Lønning(Norwegian theologian)
Isaak August Dorner(German Lutheran theologian)
Ivar Asheim(Norwegian theologian)
Jacob Georg Christian Adler(German Lutheran theologian)
Jacob Heerbrand(German Lutheran theologian)
Jacob Jervell(Norwegian theologian)
Jacob Peter Mynster(Danish Theologian)
Jakob Andreae(German Lutheran theologian)
Jakob Beurlin(German Lutheran theologian)
Jakob Böhme(German Lutheran theologian)
Jakob Christoph Rudolf Eckermann(German Lutheran theologian)
Jakob Gadolin(Finish Lutheran theologian)
Jesper Brochmand(Danish Theologian)
Joachim Jeremias(German Lutheran theologian)
Joachim Lütkemann(German Lutheran theologian)
Joachim Mörlin(German Lutheran theologian)
Joakim Garff(Danish Theologian)
Joannes Aurifaber Vratislaviensis(German Lutheran theologian)
Joel D. Heck(American Lutheran)
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Johann Arndt(German Lutheran theologian)
Johann August Ernesti(German Lutheran theologian)
Johann Benjamin Koppe(German Lutheran theologian)
Johann Blumhardt(German Lutheran theologian)
Johann Christian Konrad von Hofmann(German Lutheran theologian)
Johann Conrad Dannhauer(German Lutheran theologian)
Johann David Michaelis(German Lutheran theologian)
Johann Deutschmann(German Lutheran theologian)
Johann Erich Thunmann(Swedish Lutheran theologian)
Johann Ernst Glück(German Lutheran theologian)
Johann Forster(German Lutheran theologian)
Johann Franz Buddeus(German Lutheran theologian)
Johann Friedrich Cotta (theologian) (German Lutheran theologian)
Johann Friedrich König(German Lutheran theologian)
Johann Friedrich Mayer (theologian) (German Lutheran theologian)
Johann Funck(German Lutheran theologian)
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Johann Georg Hamann(German Lutheran theologian)
Johann Gerhard Meuschen(German Lutheran theologian)
Johann Gerhard(German Lutheran theologian)
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Johann Gottlob Carpzov(German Lutheran theologian)
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Johann Heinrich Callenberg(German Lutheran theologian)
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Johann Hülsemann(German Lutheran theologian)
Johann Jakob Quandt(German Lutheran theologian)
Johann Karl Ludwig Gieseler(German Lutheran theologian)
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John W.O. Brenner(American Lutheran)
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Jorunn Økland(Norwegian theologian)
Joseph Seiss(American Lutheran)
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Julius Micrander(Swedish Lutheran theologian)
Jurij Dalmatin
Juris Rubenis
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Justus Jonas(German Lutheran theologian)
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Karl Friedrich August Kahnis(German Lutheran theologian)
Karl Friedrich Bahrdt(German Lutheran theologian)
Kaspar Eberhard(German Lutheran theologian)
Kazoh Kitamori
Kjell Arild Pollestad(Norwegian theologian)
Klaus Koch(German Lutheran theologian)
Knud Ejler Løgstrup(Danish Theologian)
Knud Karl Krogh-Tonning(Norwegian theologian)
Konrad Cordatus
Krister Stendahl(Swedish Lutheran theologian)
Leonard Stöckel
Leonhard Hutter(German Lutheran theologian)
Ludwig Adolf Petri(German Lutheran theologian)
Magnus Agricola(German Lutheran theologian)
Marcus Fronius
Marcus Olaus Bøckmann(Norwegian theologian)
Martin Chemnitz(German Lutheran theologian)
Martin E. Marty(American Lutheran)
Martin Franzmann(American Lutheran)
Martin Hengel(German Lutheran theologian)
Martin Kähler(German Lutheran theologian)
Martin Lind(Swedish Lutheran theologian)
Martin Luther(German Lutheran theologian)
Martin Niemöller(German Lutheran theologian)
Martin Noth(German Lutheran theologian)
Marva Dawn(American Lutheran)
Matthias Flacius(German Lutheran theologian)
Matthias Hafenreffer(German Lutheran theologian)
Matthias Loy(American Lutheran)
Maximilian Mörlin(German Lutheran theologian)
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Mitri Raheb
N. F. S. Grundtvig(Danish Theologian)
N. Samuel of Tranquebar
Nicolaus Gallus(German Lutheran theologian)
Nicolaus Hunnius(German Lutheran theologian)
Nicolaus von Amsdorf(German Lutheran theologian)
Niels-Erik Andreasen(Danish Theologian)
Niels Aagaard(Danish Theologian)
Niels Hemmingsen(Danish Theologian)
Niels Jørgen Cappelørn(Danish Theologian)
Niels Peter Lemche(Danish Theologian)
Nils Ivar Agøy (Norwegian theologian)
Nils Johan Ekdahl(Swedish Lutheran theologian)
Nils Wallerius(Swedish Lutheran theologian)
Olav Fykse Tveit(Norwegian theologian)
Ole Edvard Borgen(Norwegian theologian)
Ole Hallesby(Norwegian theologian)
Oscar Cullmann (French Lutheran theologian)
Oscar von Gebhardt(German Lutheran theologian)
Oswald Bayer(German Lutheran theologian)
Otto Brunfels(German Lutheran theologian)
Otto Christian Dahl(Norwegian theologian)
Otto von Gerlach(German Lutheran theologian)
Paul Althaus(German Lutheran theologian)
Paul Drews(German Lutheran theologian)
Paul Eber(German Lutheran theologian)
Paul Gerhard Jahn(German Lutheran theologian)
Paul Kleinert(German Lutheran theologian)
Paul Laurentius(German Lutheran theologian)
Paul Leo(German Lutheran theologian)
Paul Petter Waldenström(Swedish Lutheran theologian)
Paul Johannes Tillich(American Lutheran)
Peder Borgen(Norwegian theologian)
Peter Agricola(German Lutheran theologian)
Peter Erasmus Müller(Danish Theologian)
Peter Kierkegaard(Danish Theologian)
Peter L. Berger(American Lutheran)
Petrus Michaelis Fecht(Swedish Lutheran theologian)
Philip Hefner(American Lutheran)
Philip Melanchthon(German Lutheran theologian)
Polykarp Leyser II(German Lutheran theologian)
Polykarp Leyser III(German Lutheran theologian)
Polykarp Leyser IV(German Lutheran theologian)
Polykarp Leyser the Elder(German Lutheran theologian)
Ragnar Leivestad(Norwegian theologian)
Ralf Meister(German Lutheran theologian)
Rasmus Tønder Nissen(Norwegian theologian)
Regin Prenter(Danish Theologian)
Reinhart Hummel(German Lutheran theologian)
Richard A. Jensen(American Lutheran)
Robert H. Smith (theologian) (American Lutheran)
Robert Jenson(American Lutheran)
Robert Preus(American Lutheran)
Rod Rosenbladt(American Lutheran)
Rudolf Bultmann(German Lutheran theologian)
Rudolf Otto(German Lutheran theologian)
Salomo Glassius(German Lutheran theologian)
Salomon Deyling(German Lutheran theologian)
Samuel Simon Schmucker(American Lutheran)
Sebald Heyden(German Lutheran theologian)
Siegmund Jakob Baumgarten(German Lutheran theologian)
Sigmund Mowinckel(Norwegian theologian)
Simon Michelet(Norwegian theologian)
Stanislovas Rapalionis
Stephan Agricola(German Lutheran theologian)
Stephan Praetorius(German Lutheran theologian)
Svend Borchmann Hersleb(Norwegian theologian)
Ted Peters (theologian) (American Lutheran)
Theodor Kliefoth(German Lutheran theologian)
Theodore Emanuel Schmauk(American Lutheran)
Theodosius Harnack(German Lutheran theologian) 
Theophil Großgebauer(German Lutheran theologian)
Timotheus Kirchner(German Lutheran theologian)
Toivo Harjunpää (Finish Lutheran theologian)
Toivo Harjunpää(American Lutheran)
Trygve Wyller(Norwegian theologian)
Johann Bachstrom (Polish Lutheran theologian)
Tuomo Mannermaa(Finish Lutheran theologian)
Valborg Lerche(Norwegian theologian)
Valentin Alberti(German Lutheran theologian)
Valentin Ernst Löscher(German Lutheran theologian)
Valerius Herberger(German Lutheran theologian)
Vidar Leif Haanes(Norwegian theologian)
Volrath Vogt(Norwegian theologian)
Walter Bauer(German Lutheran theologian) 
Werner Elert(German Lutheran theologian)
Wilhelm Bousset(German Lutheran theologian)
Wilhelm Bugge(Norwegian theologian)
Wilhelm Gass(German Lutheran theologian)
Wilhelm Iwan(German Lutheran theologian)
Willibald Beyschlag(German Lutheran theologian)
Wolfhart Pannenberg(German Lutheran theologian)
Yngve Brilioth(Swedish Lutheran theologian)
(출처: 주로 Wikipedia를 집중적으로 인용했으며, 이외에도 개인적으로 알고 있는 인물, 여러 인터넷, 그리고 여러 책도 참고하였다).

 

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